Electrolytes are charged particles that have key functions in maintaining your balance. They can either be positively or negatively charged.

Having a balanced and nutritious diet is usually sufficient to provide all the electrolytes to the body.

The electrolytes measured in the panel are sodium (Na+), bicarbonate (HCO3-, the most common form of carbon dioxide, CO2, in the blood), chloride (Cl-) and potassium (K+)1,2.

Biomarkers Include

Sodium (Na+)

Normal Range: 135 to 146 mEq/L3

Sodium is involved in the nervous system, particularly in nervous signaling (when nervous cells (neurons) communicate with each other). This electrolyte is also used to transport nutrients and other substances inside and out of cells4.

Bicarbonate (HCO3-) / Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Normal Range: 20-32 mEq/L

Carbon Dioxide (CO2), in the form of Bicarbonate (HCO3-), exists naturally in the blood and it’s essential to keep it balanced. Blood, like many other substances, has a pH value: it can be acid, neutral or alkaline. The standard measure for healthy blood is 7.4, which stands for a neutral pH and bicarbonate helps to balance blood’s pH to stay around this value1,6.

Chloride (Cl-)

Normal Range: 98-110 mEq/L

Besides keeping pH balanced in the blood, chloride also supports water movement in and out the cells7

Potassium (K+)

Normal Range: 3.5 to 5.3 mEq/L3

Potassium is essential for muscle contraction and, side-by-side with sodium, plays a key role in transporting substances at the cellular level1